Gatwick Drone Incident Dec 18

Our thoughts go out to the passengers disrupted by the most recent alleged drone incident at Gatwick. The activity by the irresponsible drone operators has serious safety concerns and significant ramifications for the drone industry in the UK.

Reports have indicated that at least two drones have been spotted over the airport over several hours overnight.

Reading many of the news reports and social media posts, there has been numerous calls for the banning of drones, registration, drone tracking, anti-drone systems, and even calls for the army or air force to shoot them down.

Let’s discuss some of these debates and calls…

Geofencing: Most drones sold in the UK are made by a Chinese manufacturer DJI. DJI have done a lot to prevent drones from flying at or near airports. Most DJI drones are Geofenced, what this means is that they have a GPS database of airports and other sensitive sites in their software. Geofenced drones will not take off near an airport, if they try to fly towards one, they will reduce their altitude automatically until they land. There is however a community of drone pilots who have reverse engineered this restriction.

Drone Detection: Drones can be controlled using a variety of technologies, again the majority from DJI either use 2.4ghz or 5.8Ghz frequencies for control and video links. These are well document and most drone detection systems can detect these. There are however several other ways to control a drone, either through alternative frequencies in the UHF band, or through Wi-Fi, 3G and 4G. Jamming or detecting drones using mobile phone technology is somewhat more difficult.

Jamming: Jamming of common drone control links is not difficult and is easily done, there is a risk however that you bring the drone down, which has serious safety and risk concerns. Jamming 3G and 4G links also has other concerns, many other systems use these for example. Should the drone be using GPS for navigation then jamming or spoofing the GPS system is possible, either forcing the drone to return to home or move elsewhere. Again, there are safety concerns with doing this  as third parties could be injured or killed.

Anti-Drone System: There are many reported systems out there that state they can bring drones down, kinetic systems of various types, nets, lasers etc etc, unfortunately many of these system are currently illegal for use in the UK, and again there are safety and moral concerns about the use of these systems due to the possibility of injuring or killing third parties should the drone crash.

Drone registration is planned for 2019, this will not deter those wishing to use drones for nefarious purposes and is unlikely to have assisted the security services with the incident. Should it have been place now.  

Like any technology drones can be use for good and bad reasons, calls for an outright ban on drones are also unrealistic, the technology is widely available and would not restrict those wanting to cause disruption or worse.

So, what is the answer? well there is no one magic bullet in this respect. Airports are going to have to install multi-layered drone detection systems, radar, RF and visual. This will certainly help the security services detect drones and track them to their take-off and landing location more easily. Anti-drone systems that either take over control, force land or crash, are more difficult to deploy and would have to be carefully controlled,the law would also need to be changed in the UK to allow their wider use.

About the author: Craig Jump Is leading drone consultant, with over 7 years drone / UAV flying experience. He holds UK CAA permissions for fixed and rotary wing drones and is a UK CAA NQE Instructor and flight assessor.

Drones a a Service, (DaaS)

The drone industry contrary to what is reported in the media is still very much in its infancy. Initially the market was filled by operators from the hobby sector, seeing an opportunity to make a fast buck. These entrepreneurs were typically a one-man band who offered vanilla drone aerial imaging and video. The more successful operators had some grounding and knowledge in video or photography. Over the last two years although the market has consolidated,it had not done so at the same rate as some had expected. In the UK at the time of writing there are some 4500+ registered organisations with permissions from the UK CAA for commercial operations, with an estimated 9000+ individual pilots.

The rate of new operators entering the market as standalone business as slowed dramatically. In the last 18 months there has been a trend towards enterprises bringing drone operations in house with mixed results. One of the reasons for these mixed results is that end users are more concerned with big data than hardware. Owning, maintaining, and operating drones, with the overhead of compliance, training and CPD, can be too much of an overhead to some businesses. As a result, drones as a service has seeing a huge growth. Governments and businesses of all sizes are likely adopters of DaaS. The global revenue market for drones is expected to reach £9 billion by 2020, according to Gartner.

The opportunities that can be realised when deploying drones as a service are extensive. This model offers an attractive alternative to buying and managing drone operations in house. It also eliminates the upfront capital cost associated with buying a drone, and the ongoing costs and risk. It also provides a reliable revenue stream for service suppliers. Drones as a service can follow the examples we have seen in the computer and software services industry.

Drones or as they are known, Unmanned Aerial Systems, (UAS), can expand new avenues for businesses to collect extensive amounts of data, which in turn can improve their operations, increasing revenue or reducing cost. For instance, they can be useful for precision agriculture, security, wildlife monitoring, environmental survey, and many more.

Increasing levels of autonomy are enabling drones to fly with minimal pilot input and send the most relevant data automatically to the client or management centre. The growing popularity of drones as a service models is paving the way to the “Internet of Drones” becoming reality. In the future fleets of drones could be automatically tasked with capturing data, or a passenger drone could be tasked with capturing imaging after delivering its occupants to their place of work, or whilst on route. A single drone can accomplish a lot;now imagine an entire network of drones, all sharing information, reporting back to mission control, and providing critical information to those on the ground.

Drones as a service grow in the public sector

Although in decline, consumers will continue to purchase drones for personal uses such as aerial photography, but the potentially huge growth of drones as a service means more businesses will have access to big data and insights from a variety of mobile sensors like never.

Over the next two years, the fastest growth opportunity for drones will come from business and public sector. This projected growth could help catapult the drone service market forward, allowing for consolidation of existing services providers, and from new market entrants looking for investment returns.

Drones are able to reach areas and collect more data at a faster pace than a human, which is what helps make drones as a service so valuable.They can monitor an environment in real time and be configured to share only the most important information as it is received.

Using drones during Flood events.

Using drones during Flood events.

As drones have become more popular, their benefits during a disaster or other natural event has been recognised by numerous agencies and individuals.

During an event in Scotland in 2016, we were called upon by SEPA at very short notice to try and image some flooding over a large are. Whilst we were able to deploy at short notice it highlighted some safety concerns and also the practicalities of using drones during a large flooding events.

Depending on the agency, the drone imaging requirements can vary:

  • Geospatial and public sector clients tend to require point clouds, photogrammetry and other GIS outputs,
  • Insurance; video and still imaging
  • News and reporting; video and stills. LIDAR can also offer benefits especially in regard to mapping but currently has some limitations on drones.

Drone Platforms for Flood Imaging and Mapping

Whilst this is a general survey of the pros and cons of rotary verses fixed wing, and there are some exceptions, these apply to  majority of drone service providers.

Rotary Wing

  • Pros:
    • Easier & Quicker Deployment
    • Can take off in small areas
    • Video and stills
    • Oblique and Nadir imaging
  • Cons:
    • Limited flight time
    • Total area per flight limited to @75ha
      • (Standard permissions)
    • Typically <20min flight time
  • Fixed Wing
    • Pros:
      • @1 hour flight times
      • Up to 200ha per flight, (EVLOS), 1000ha+ in a day
      • UK CAA more likely to approve extended distances due to reduced risk
    • Cons:
      • Needs large area for take-off and landing
      • Needs Extended Visual Line of sight approvals from CAA for best use and return on investment
      • Nadir images only, no video on most platforms

Operating Drones Safely for Flood Survey

During a large flooding event, where there is large scale risk to life, limb or property, and emergency controlling authority (ECA) will be established. Typically this will the local Police force, but they may differ to the Fire Brigade who will be better equipped to co-ordinate and respond.

It is our experience that there many other “air users” during a flood, Search and Rescue, (SAR), Police, Coast Guard, Armed Forces, News Helicopters as well as hobby drone pilots and other commercial drone pilots. It is therefore important when operating drones in these areas that the flights are coordindated with the Emergency Controlling Authority, (ECA) if one is in control.

Using Video as Survey Data

  • Weather a consideration, most drones don’t like rain and wind needs to >20mph
  • Other airspace users may create additional risks
    • Police, Military, Hobby etc, need to coordinate with other agencies
  • Gaining landowner permissions at short notice difficult *
    • Drone provider could be classed as CAT 2 responder *
  • Large flood areas may be better to use manned aircraft *
  • Varied Datasets required for Environment Agencies, Local Authorities, Insurance Companies etc, sharing of data ?
  • Drone mapping using RGB cameras may be limited to flood extent
  • Video imaging needs tied to platform that can visualise location, direction of view / time & date

 

Turkey Red Media is part of a UK wide contract which mobilises during large flood events, on behalf of a number of agencies, including Public Sector, Insurance and Geospatial